Publications Library

Explore our library of publications and external resources related to asset recovery. You can submit a document to be considered for inclusion in this section.

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StAR publications are marked with our red logo in the top right corner. We also feature selected external materials related to the asset recovery process in this section, which are marked with a yellow arrow. See disclaimer on external materials at the bottom of this page. 


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4 Results
June 22, 2022

Legal Persons and Arrangements Money Laundering Risk Assessment Tool

StAR led the development of a new module to assess money laundering risks related to legal entities and beneficial ownership-related risks, as part of the World Bank’s National Money Laundering/Terrorist Financ...
Beneficial Ownership Transparency
StAR Publications
April 19, 2022

Signatures for Sale: How Nominee Services for Shell Companies Are Abused to Conceal Beneficial Owners

This report analyzes a family of related corporate arrangements in which nominees act as agents of principals in control of shell companies. It focuses on how nominee arrangements can be abused to facilitate fina...
Beneficial Ownership Transparency
StAR Publications
June 2, 2021

The Role and Responsibilities of Gatekeepers in the Fight against Illicit Financial Flows: A Unifying Framework

High-profile investigations, from the Panama Papers to the more recent FinCEN Files, have drawn widespread attention to the essential role of certain professional industries in relation to international money lau...
Beneficial Ownership Transparency
StAR Publications
October 24, 2011

The Puppet Masters

This StAR report examines how bribes, embezzled state assets and other criminal proceeds are being hidden via legal structures – shell companies, foundations, trusts and others. The study also provides policy m...
Beneficial Ownership Transparency
StAR Publications


Selected external materials are included for general information purposes only and do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank Group or UNODC. Neither the World Bank Group or UNODC nor its officers or employees shall be liable for any losses that may result directly or indirectly from the use of or reliance upon such information.

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